Captain America: The Winter Soldier is a 2014 American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics character Captain America, produced by Marvel Studios and distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures. It is the sequel to 2011's Captain America: The First Avenger and the ninth film in the Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU). The film was directed by Anthony and Joe Russo, with a screenplay by Christopher Markus & Stephen McFeely, who had also written The First Avenger. It stars Chris Evans as Captain America, leading an ensemble cast that includes Scarlett Johansson, Sebastian Stan, Anthony Mackie, Cobie Smulders, Frank Grillo, Emily VanCamp, Hayley Atwell, Robert Redford, and Samuel L. Jackson. In Captain America: The Winter Soldier, Captain America, Black Widow, and Falcon join forces to uncover a conspiracy within S.H.I.E.L.D. while facing a mysterious assassin known as the Winter Soldier.
A major influence in The Winter Soldier was conspiracy fiction from the 1970s such as Three Days of the Condor, with the script also drawing from the Winter Soldier story arc written by Ed Brubaker. The script was written in 2011, with the Russo brothers entering negotiations to direct in June 2012 and casting beginning the following month. Principal photography commenced in April 2013 in Los Angeles, California before moving to Washington, D.C. and Cleveland, Ohio. While the directors aimed for more realism, with focus on practical effects and intense stunt work, 2,500 visual effects shots were done by six different companies.
Captain America: The Winter Soldier premiered in Los Angeles on March 13, 2014. It was released internationally on March 26, 2014, and in North America on April 4, 2014, in 2D, 3D, and IMAX 3D. The film became a critical and commercial success, grossing over $714 million worldwide. It also received an Academy Award nomination for Best Visual Effects. A sequel titled Captain America: Civil War also directed by the Russo brothers was released on May 6, 2016.